Organic nanostructures

Light Manipulation for Organic Optoelectronics Using Bio-inspired

Performance characteristics of OLEDs.

MEN fabrication

Figure 1a depicts a schematic diagram of the device structure constructed with dual-side MEN, which was transferred by an imprinting technique using perfluoropolyether (PFPE) mold containing the MEN with compressive stress on the surface of poly(3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS), ZnO, or UV-curable resin films supported on ITO glass substrates (see the Methods and Supplementary Figs. S1–S5 for the fabrication processes of PFPE molds and devices). Both the sub-wavelength structures and a continuously tapered morphology can be observed on the surface of PFPE molds, which effectively mimic the natural structures of a moth's eyes.

Figure 1b–d present the atomic force micrographs (AFM) of MENs patterned on a PEDOT:PSS layer (Fig. 1b), a ZnO layer (Fig. 1c), as well as UV-curable resin film (Fig. 1d), showing the produced MENs is smaller than visible wavelength.Photovoltaic performance of OSCs. e (RMS) roughness of the PEDOT:PSS layer was changed from 1.03 ± 0.01 nm to 5.28 ± 0.05 nm upon the imprinting, while that of the ZnO layer varied from 0.98 ± 0.02 nm to 6.43 ± 0.07 nm. Note that the MEN diameter of imprinted ZnO or PEDOT:PSS layer is smaller than the feature size of the PFPE mold (Supplementary Figs. S2–4), which is attributed to shrinkage of ZnO or PEDOT:PSS volume upon the solvent removal during the imprinting procedure.Optical properties of OLED and OSC with MEN. ough deposition of each successive layer causes progressive smoothing of the MEN structuring (Supplementary Fig. S6).

To evaluate the capability of dual-side MEN on light coupling in organic optoelectronics, we constructed OLED and OSC devices using representative materials in a conventional architecture on dual-side MEN-patterned substrates as well as flat substrates (See Methods for materials composition and device structures used for OLEDs and OSCs). The device with dual-side MEN is fabricated as shown in Fig. 1a. The conventional device is on a flat substrate without MEN. For device with internal MEN, a MEN is only transferred to the PEDOT:PSS or ZnO layer on top of ITO surface before organic layer deposition. For device with external MEN, the MEN is only transferred to UV-curable resin on the glass surface. To ensure consistent results, each series of all four samples for OLEDs or OSCs were simultaneously fabricated in the same batch.

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